Glossary




Access here the definitions of keywords




This glossary has been developed for the sole purpose of facilitating the use of the results of this study. It provides definitions and examples of the use of the terms relating to the information and data presented on the site concerning children in judicial proceedings. It does not include definitions of legal terms which may vary between Member States and legal commentators.




Acronyms and Abbreviations
Beijing Rules UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Administration of Juvenile Justice
CoECouncil of Europe
CRCConvention for the Rights of the Child
EAWEuropean Arrest Warrant
ECEuropean Commission
ECRISEuropean Criminal Records Information System
ECOSOC United Nations Economic and Social Council
EUEuropean Union
FRA Fundamental Rights Agency of the European Union
General Comment No 10UN Committee on the rights of the child General Comment No 10 on children's rights in juvenile justice
General Comment No 12UN Committee on the rights of the child General Comment No 12 on the rights of the child to be heard
General Comment No 13UN Committee on the rights of the child General Comment No 13 on the right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence
Havana Rules UN Rules for the Protection of Juveniles Deprived of Their Liberty
IJJOInternational Juvenile Justice Observatory
Lanzarote Convention Council of Europe Convention on the Protection of Children against Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse
MACRMinimum age of criminal responsibility
MSMember State
NGONon-governmental organisation
Riyadh GuidelineThe United Nations Guidelines for the prevent of juvenile delinquency
SPACE I Annual Penal Statistics of the Council of Europe on populations of penal institutions
SPACE II Annual Penal Statistics of the Council of Europe on non-custodial sanctions and measures
Tokyo Rules The United Nations Minimum rules for non-custodial measures
TransMONEETransformative Monitoring for Enhanced Equity
Vienna Guidelines The United Nations guidelines on the administration of juvenile justice
UNUnited Nations
Restorative justice principles The United Nations Basic principles on the use of restorative justice programmes in criminal matters, ECOSOC Resolution 2002/12
UN child victim and witnesses guidelines UN Guidelines on justice in matters involving child victims and witnesses of crime
UNICEFUnited Nations Children's Fund
UNODC United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime


Member State Abbreviations
AustriaAT
BelgiumBE
BulgariaBG
CroatiaHR
CyprusCY
Czech RepublicCZ
DenmarkDK
EstoniaEE
FinlandFI
FranceFR
GermanyDE
GreeceEL
HungaryHU
IrelandIE
ItalyIT
LatviaLV
LithuaniaLT
Luxembourg LU
MaltaMT
NetherlandsNL
PolandPL
PortugalPT
RomaniaRO
SlovakiaSK
SloveniaSI
SpainES
SwedenSE
United Kingdom – England and WalesUK-E&W
United Kingdom – Northern IrelandUK-NI
United Kingdom – Scotland UK-S
 

Administrative data

Data produced as a result of the administrative processes of organizations (e.g. data derived from court or police records). The bulk of the datasets presented in this study, including the information collected by international organisations for more than one country, contain administrative data. When considering the findings it has to be borne in mind that the precise method of administrative data collection may vary between Member States and thus the findings may not be directly comparable. Administrative data contrasts with survey data that is systematically collected for the purpose of generating statistics and where comparability is likely to be better than for administrative data.
 

Approximate datasets

Datasets that provide information closely relevant to an indicator in the Masterlist but do not allow for an indicator score to be generated because the information is not sufficiently comparable. The symbol above has been used to signify datasets of this type. For example, Convictions of children (aged 14 to 17) by type of offence. (2008, 2009, 2010, 2011) in Austria is deemed approximate to indicators CRIM 014 and CRIM018 in the Masterlist.
 

Child

Any person below the age of 18 years.
 

Child-friendly justice

The Council of Europe Guidelines on Child-friendly Justice, define child-friendly justice as “justice that is accessible, age appropriate, speedy, diligent, adapted to and focused on the needs and rights of the child, respecting the rights of the child including the rights to due process, to participate in and to understand the proceedings, to respect for private and family life and to integrity and dignity.”
 

Contextual indicators

Indicators that provide background information on the situation of child offenders, victims and witnesses or children in other roles involved in judicial proceedings. For example, CRIM009.1 Children arrested during a 12 month period per 100,000 child population is a contextual indicator.
 

Dataset

A collection of data, usually presented in tabular form.
 

Denominators

The expression written below the line in a common fraction that indicates the number of parts into which one whole is divided.
 

Equivalent datasets

Datasets that provide information that has been used to generate indicator scores because the data they contain correspond precisely or very closely to the definition of an indicator in the Masterlist. The symbol above has been used to signify datasets of this type. For example, Percentage of child offenders (aged 14 to 17) on probation supervised by volunteer probation officer. (2008, 2009, 2010, 2011) in Austria is deemed equivalent to indicator CRIM 273
 

EU Summary

The document that provides a summary of the National Contextual Overviews including summary tables. The current (October 2013) summary covers children in criminal judicial proceedings.
 

Indicators

Observations that either provide a common way of presenting information that reveals whether ‘child friendly’ standards are being met or describe contextual conditions (e.g. numbers of children involved in different aspects of the judicial process). The Masterlist provides the preferred list of indicators. In many cases however, the indicators concerning child friendly standards have been broken down into discrete observable elements
 

Information sources

The metadata for each of the national and international datasets indicates the sources of information. The comparative tables include information derived from national contextual overviews. The sources of information are provided.
 

Masterlist

A list that contains indicators developed in the course of the study. The list is divided into 18 themes and includes contextual indicators and indicators that relate to safeguards defined in key international and EU human rights instruments. The Masterlist was reviewed by the Steering Group for the study and Member State authorities were also consulted. The Masterlist includes references to international laws, safeguards and standards that provide a basis for the definition of many of the indicators. The indicators in the Masterlist related to safeguards are classified according to whether they are structural, process or outcome
 

Metadata

Information on the characteristics of the datasets (this includes: theme, Masterlist indicator number to which it is equivalent or approximate, source, timescale, definition, and type of disaggregation) in order to help users understand or to use the dataset.
 

National Contextual Overviews

Documents that describe the situation as at 1 June 2012 with regard to children's involvement in judicial proceedings in a specific Member State. The contextual overviews for all Member State can be downloaded here: European Union Open Data Portal
 

Numerator

The expression written above the line in a common fraction to indicate the number of parts of the whole. For example, in CRIM009.1 Children arrested during a 12 month period per 100,000 child population the numerator is ‘Children arrested during a 12 month period’.
 

Observable elements

variables that are scored when it has not been possible to score a Masterlist Indicator relating to a safeguard. Instead aspects of the indicator have been recorded with nominal scores. A particular Masterlist indicator may have several different observable elements. For example, CRIM050 Statutory provision on the right of child (suspected) offenders to information in a child-friendly format - that takes into account any special needs of the child - about rights, charges and procedures from the child's first contact with a competent authority, has four observable elements: provision is in legislation; provision that child offender has right to receive information; information is provided on first contact; and, information is in child friendly format.
 

Outcome indicators

Indicators that record the effects of the safeguard measures on children. Such indicators ideally require systematic surveys and unfortunately very few data are available. For example, CRIM052 Evidence (e.g. via reporting) that child (suspected) offenders understood their rights, and the charges brought against them in the criminal justice process is an outcome indicator.
 

Process indicators

Indicators that reflect how legal, budgetary and political measures are translated into practice. This includes national strategies, policy measures, action programmes, training initiatives, campaigns and other activities aimed at realising particular children’s rights. For example, CRIM051 Availability of information in a child-friendly format for child (suspected) offenders about rights, charges and procedures in police stations and other competent authorities across the country, is a process indicator.
 

Qualitative indicators

Indicators with scores that are informed (in part or whole) by judgements. CRIM051 Availability of information in a child-friendly format for child (suspected) offenders about rights, charges and procedures in police stations and other competent authorities across the country is an example of an indicator that is partly qualitative, scores of yes, no and in part have been allocated. Aspects of the indicator such as child-friendly and across the country may be somewhat judgemental and open to interpretation.
 

Quantitative indicators

Indicators with scores that are informed by facts. For example, CRIM009.1 Children arrested during a 12 month period per 100,000 child population is a quantitative indicator included in the Masterlist.
 

Related to datasets

When datasets contain information that is neither approximate nor equivalent to the Masterlist indicator they may nevertheless be relevant to, or ‘related to’ a particular theme. National datasets are always presented within the themes to which they are related.
 

Scores

The values attributed to variables or indicators. Score may be expressed nominally (for example, yes/No/partial) or as numbers (which could be scores on ordinal, interval or ratio scales)
 

Structural indicators

Indicators that reflect the state of the the legal, budgetary and policy context in Member States and that take account of legal instruments and institutional mechanisms. For example, CRIM050 Statutory provision on the right of child (suspected) offenders to information in a child-friendly format - that takes into account any special needs of the child - about rights, charges and procedures from the child's first contact with a competent authority is a structural indicator
 

Survey data

Information that results from the systematic sampling of respondents. Information from the survey is used to make inferences about the whole population. In this study there are very few data of this type. Many of the outcome indicators require data of this type.
 

Themes

The 18 categories that have been used to classify the Masterlist indicators. For example, Theme 7 is Right to information and advice and Theme 8 is Protection of private and family life.
 

Variables

The numerators and denominators making up an indicator may be referred to generically as variables.